In the 2nd edition of Steve McConnell's Code Complete he recommends that a cyclomatic complexity from 0 to 5 is typically fine, but you should be aware if the complexity starts to get in the 6 to 10 range. That doesn't eliminate the complexity of the logic; it just hides it and makes it less apparent, and thus more difficult to maintain. You have too deeply nested of ifs. That's oversimplifying it a big, but I think it gets the idea across. Once this is produced, it is simply: M = E – N + 2 E is the number of edges of the graph, N is the number of nodes and Mis McCabe’s complexity. It was developed by Thomas J. McCabe, Sr. in 1976. 05:40. Admittedly, those people are a rare breed. You cannot know its bug free if you have not tested it. However, for my personal understanding, it should be on a function base. The English translation for the Chinese word "剩女". I don't understand what your question is - you found a range list for cyclomatic complexity. Cyclomatic complexity is a metric used in software development to calculate how many independent paths of execution exist in code. In fact, various studies over the years have determined that methods having a cyclomatic complexity (or CC) greater than 10 have a higher risk of defects. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. rev 2021.1.21.38376, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Software Engineering Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. What I have personally read a lot of times is that methods with a CC higher than 10 have higher risks of defects. Check out this IBM article on CC. Nodes 2. Following are the steps to compute the cyclomatic complexity: They concern themselves with cyclomatic complexity precisely because they, too, care about defect likelihood. Is it valid to say that the complexity is high based on the lines of code? It seems high but in your case it is the addition of the CC of all your methods of all your classes and methods. I was wondering if there was. It is created by calculating the number of different code paths in the flow of the program. LAST QUESTIONS. Certainly cyclomatic complexity isn't the only measurement, but it can help. I think the Cyclomatic Complexity metric should be working on a Method level and not on a Project level to be more effective. The Birdclass above has a cyclomatic complexity of 10, right on the cusp of where we don’t want to be. Some of the open source tool out there take class as an module or other level of structure as a module. Merge Two Paragraphs with Removing Duplicated Lines, methods between 1 and 10 are considered simple and easy to understand, values between 10 and 20 indicate more complex code, which may still be comprehensible; however testing becomes more difficult due to the greater number of possible branches the code can take, values of 20 and above are typical of code with a very large number of potential execution paths and can only be fully grasped and tested with great difficulty and effort, methods going even higher, e.g. It has a couple of snippits of pseudocode and some graphs that show what cyclomatic complexity is all about. So we’ve come to regard high cyclomatic complexity as something indicative of higher likelihood of defects, thus our interest in measuring it. Cyclomatic complexity is a source code complexity measurement that is being correlated to a number of coding errors. It is computed using the Control Flow Graph of the program. It is a software metric used to indicate the complexity of a program. A freeware tool that can calculate cyclomatic complexity for a number of languages, including C++, C, C#, VB.NET, Java, and Delphi. Generated code will often have a high cyclomatic complexity, and should typically be ignored as you assess and monitor your own code quality. Episode 306: Gaming PCs to heat your home, oceans to cool your data centers. What does it mean by "threshold: 15"? More than 50 - too complex, can't test , high risk ; The calculate rule for that metric is kind of complex, and if you want more details on how CC is calculated, please check Wikipedia. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Imagine all the unit test cases needed for that branching logic! Cyclomatic complexity for method is too high. The cyclomatic complexity of a section of source code is the number of linearly independent paths within it—where "linearly independent" means that each path has at least one edge that is not in one of the other paths. Cyclomatic Complexity = E – N + P. Cyclomatic Complexity = E – N + 1. Consequences: A high cyclomatic complexity for a particular function means that the function will be difficult to understand, and more difficult to test. The application itself is only 37,672 lines of code. There are simply cases where cyclomatic complexity is irrelevant. Basically unmaintainable, untestable, full of potential bugs. Is cycling on this 35mph road too dangerous? It's just that there is no and couldn't be any tool which would indicate, flawlessly, how good or bad is a given piece of code or how easy is it to maintain. Lower the Program's cyclomatic complexity, lower the risk to modify and easier to understand. ... [Wikipedia]). What does the 'cyclomatic complexity' of my code mean?, Cyclomatic complexity is not a measure of lines of code, but the number of independent 10 Easy to maintain; 11-20 Harder to maintain; 21+ Candidates for a lot of times is that methods with a CC higher than 10 have higher risks of defects. 2. Cyclomatic complexity or LOC are just metrics that get handed to you by static code analysis. "The CASE statement may have to be redesigned using a factory pattern to get rid of the branching logic." If the code had one single-condition IF statement, there would be two paths through the code: one where the IF statement evaluates to TRUE and another one where it evaluates to FALSE, so the complexity would be 2. This has a few implications, typically in terms of how difficult it is to understand and test your application. There is no silver bullet. What to do so that there isn't [mccabe] Cyclomatic complexity too high: 23 (threshold 15) message . I use Sonar to test code quality of my applications and by default I think it raises a warning if you have methods with +10 CC. For example: 1-5: easy to maintain Can someone explain this to me? Its defined as: Its defined as: A quantitative measure of the number of linearly independent paths through a program’s source code…computed using the control flow graph of … A cyclomatic complexity value between 5 and 7 is when things start unravelling. 6-10: difficult Not good. Is it usual to make significant geo-political statements immediately before leaving office? So what exactly is a high score? Why is cyclomatic complexity that important for a single method? If you're trying to do something simple, then it is very, very high. Also, you haven't given us enough context about what this function aims to achieve for us to give you a good code review. Only then can you tell if a particular piece of software is needlessly complex. I don't know what you mean by "high cyclomatic complexity"? (but not the type of clustering you're thinking about). He further explains that anything over a complexity of 10 you should strongly consider refactoring your code. And MS shows "green" for anything under 25. Python 3 says above 15 is too high - it doesn't seem to affect my code in any way, it's just annoying that it underlines code for no apparent reason. So, by reducing code complexity, we can reduce the number of … By counting the distinct paths through a method, this integer-based metric aptly depicts method complexity. How unusual is a Vice President presiding over their own replacement in the Senate? Cyclomatic complexity yields a number that is a count of the number of linearly independent paths through a function, and so it provides the minimum number of test cases required to hit all combinations of decision points. Is there a generally accepted range list for cyclomatic complexity? and other factors depending on the algorithum used. Improve this answer. A program that has complex control flow requires more tests to achieve good code coverage and is less maintainable. As you can't program an application which will tell that a given painting is a masterpiece, and that another one should be thrown away, because it has no artistic value. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. This has a few implications, typically in terms of how difficult it is to understand and test your application. It doesn't explain why or what I can do (short of creating a hundred smaller functions) to resolve. But don't take these numbers too seriously -- you may have comprehensible control flow despite high numbers. Each 'path' of the IF statement needs to be 'rendered' in your brain to have an overview of what the applications will do. The higher number of lines means the combination of several logics altogether, which clearly violates the SRP (single responsibility principle). tool - what is high cyclomatic complexity . Why are two 555 timers in separate sub-circuits cross-talking? What does it mean by "threshold: 15"? :) increases the complexity by one. In all cases, those are just hints, and should be used with caution. An if statement (or unless or ? Cyclomatic complexity for method is too high. In practice, I've seen source code which had good cyclomatic complexity, but which was terrible. By counting the distinct paths through a method, this integer-based metric aptly depicts method complexity. A method with high cyclomatic complexity is typically difficult to understand and test. What exactly is the Cyclomatic complexity saying to me? How to accomplish? I know that's terrible, but I'm curious to know about the lower ranges, like in my example above. It was developed by Thomas J. McCabe, Sr. in 1976. At the same time, I've seen code with high cyclomatic complexity, but I hadn't too much pain understanding it. Cyclomatic complexity assesses the complexity of a method by counting the number of decision points in a method, plus one for the method entry. At the same time, I've seen code with high cyclomatic complexity, but I hadn't too much pain understanding it. Wikipedia article on cyclomatic complexity, also read McCabe's paper where he defined cyclomatic complexity, Episode 306: Gaming PCs to heat your home, oceans to cool your data centers. Going by the handbook for Carnegiege University in regards to software development ( and they use thie first calculation method I mentioned): Cyclomatic Complexity Risk Evaluation. Connect a node to each node … Summing cyclomatic complexity of function or files. Share. And why does high complexity mean you probably need to refactor your code? While there is no hard-and-fast rule for max code complexity, typically 10 or more is a sign that you should refactor. Using Cyclomatic complexity as a primary measure of an application or system helps organizations identify high-risk applications and develop improvement approaches for decreasing the threats, maintenance time, productivity issues, and technical debt. The algorithm counts decision points and adds one. So we’ve come to regard high cyclomatic complexity as something indicative of higher likelihood of defects, thus our interest in measuring it. +1 I agree with everything said. That entirely depends on what you're doing. Cyclomatic complexity, pioneered during those studies I previously mentioned, precisely measures path complexity. Since the bigger a project gets, the functions it attends to have. Cyclomatic Complexity - Measures the structural complexity of the code. rough ranges for cyclomatic complexity values: When running code metrics for a solution, the results show green for anything below 25. The code is analyzed and a complexity number is determined. There are no predefined categories and no categorization would be possible for several reasons: Some refactoring techniques just move the complexity from one point to another (not from your code to the framework or a well-tested external library, but from one location to another of the codebase). The meaningful CCN you should care about is on a function base other than any other. There are two actions you can take to mitigate the CC. There are metrics which are broken by design (like LOC or the number of comments per file), and there are metrics which can give some raw hints (like the number of bugs or the cyclomatic complexity). "Modernizing" the code by using syntactic sugar. Can I buy a timeshare off ebay for $1 then deed it back to the timeshare company and go on a vacation for $1. Please read How to Ask and edit both the title and the body of the question. Complex code may perform poorly and can be difficult to test thoroughly. Do Schlichting's and Balmer's definitions of higher Witt groups of a scheme agree when 2 is inverted? But the same thing has come to apply for non-technical stakeholders as well. EDIT: it says: [mccabe] Cyclomatic complexity too high: 95 (threshold 15) too high; cyclomatic complexity; complexity too; Home Python Cyclomatic complexity too high. Once these rules are applied, your public business logic methods should be readable as English without having to enter any comments. In fact, various studies over the years have determined that methods having a cyclomatic complexity (or CC) greater than 10 have a higher risk of defects. I need 30 amps in a single room to run vegetable grow lighting. This is a more easy way. Also, you haven't given us enough context about what this function aims to achieve for us to give you a good code review. Using Rubocop (A Linter) I got the error: Cyclomatic complexity for my_inject is too high. State machines can be implemented in elegant ways, with OOP or design patterns. At the same time, those statements are a disaster, cyclomatic complexity-wise. Edges Statements in a program are represented as nodes, and control paths from one statement to another are represented by Edges. 20+: approaching impossible. I agree with @ThomasOwens, but I am glad you asked this question. I've seen various ranges; that was just one example. 341 3 3 silver badges 6 6 bronze badges. Cyclomatic complexity for this method is 19 and it’s too complex. On the other hand, an application with few conditions might have a low cyclomatic complexity. What does the 'cyclomatic complexity' of my code mean? 1. unit testing -- determine the number of test cases required to detrmine all the paths. console warning: "Too many lights in the scene !!!". ... \$\begingroup\$ The title is too common and generic for this site. At higher levels it is just a number. Cyclomatic complexity assesses the complexity of a method by counting the number of decision points in a method, plus one for the method entry. My application has a Cyclomatic complexity of 17,754. I'm analyzing a solution, and I'm trying to make a determination of the quality of the code. Software Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for professionals, academics, and students working within the systems development life cycle. rev 2021.1.21.38376, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Software Engineering Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. Ease of testing. Studies on cyclomatic complexity … Maybe the complexity score is set too low for normal users, but then why are these values the default? Other programmers are perfectly capable of creating perfectly good, bug free programs without writing a single unit test. The number is useful at the method level. Create one node per instruction. Tools like NDepend (see below) make it easy to segment the analysis of your own code from included or generated code (Visual Studio’s support for these metrics does not, except at the project level). Moreover, high code complexity brings with it a higher level of code defects, making the code costlier to maintain. And yes, if you're good enough, it's absolutely possible to write bug free code with no tests or a rudimentary smoke test. That will generate a cyclomatic complexity of 50. The standard threshold for this complexity is 10 points, so if you have a function with higher complexion than that, you should try to reduce it. Add private methods with meaningful names… Concentrating too much decisional logic in a single method makes its behaviour hard to read and change. Some programmers are staunch advocates of TDD, and will not write any code without writing a unit test first. Thanks. ... \$\begingroup\$ The title is too common and generic for this site. Cyclomatic complexity. Thomas Weller. Not at all. Layne. Can I buy a timeshare off ebay for $1 then deed it back to the timeshare company and go on a vacation for $1. You'll need to restructure your code to "flatten" it out, but doing so would require quite a major refactor, which is too … The nodes in the graph indicate the smallest group of commands of a program, and a directed edge in it connects the two nodes i.e. Moreover, what does cognitive complexity mean? A connection matrix is used to find the cyclomatic complexity of the control graph. It is a software metric used to indicate the complexity of a program. How can I cut 4x4 posts that are already mounted? Too many IF statements make an application complex. Cumulative sum of values in a column with same ID. Why? You should not have that ratio in "hello world", for example. We don’t tend to think of code within that range as complex either. Ask Question Asked 3 years, 7 months ago. Concentrating too much decisional logic in a single method makes its behaviour hard to read and change. Sometimes you can refactor (break up the method into smaller parts) and in some cases only a redesign will reduce the complexity. How do you say “Me slapping him.” in French? Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric (measurement) used to indicate the complexity of a program. My friend says that the story of my novel sounds too similar to Harry Potter, Contradictory statements on product states for distinguishable particles in Quantum Mechanics. Without knowing more about what your application does, it might be normal to have a higher cyclomatic complexity. Can you please explain what this means? What to do so that there isn't [mccabe] Cyclomatic complexity too high: 23 (threshold 15) message . 11-15: very difficult I really want it gone. Moreover, high code complexity brings with it a higher level of code defects, making the code costlier to maintain. Introduction to Cyclomatic Complexity. I really want it gone. 11-20 more complex, moderate risk. In 1976, Thomas McCabe Snr proposed a metric for calculating code complexity, called Cyclomatic Complexity. How to measure external quality of software, Approaches to reduce cyclomatic complexity, Cyclomatic complexity when calling same method multiple times, Writing clean code without knowledge on the programmed topic, Summing cyclomatic complexity of function or files, Prevent developer errors / debugging help, 9 year old is breaking the rules, and not understanding consequences. Your cyclomatic complexity of 17,754 means that your application has 17,754 unique paths through it. How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity of a method Key Steps Following are the key steps to follow, in order to refactor a complex method into simple readable code. Some of it I get (having arrow functions inline vs. breaking them out) but it also tells me that an empty object ({}) is a complexity and I'm not sure how to refactor that. Examples: adding relevant comments or documentation. The formula of the cyclomatic complexity of a function is based on a graph representation of its code. To compute a graph representation of code, we can simply disassemble its assembly code and create a graph following the rules: 1. In my case, I have some relatively short functions that are telling me are ridiculously complex. Is it valid to say that the complexity is high based of the lines of code? Complexity in software development is Cyclomatic Complexity. A big switch statement that calls other functions, as part of a state machine or something similar, can have a very high complexity, despite possibly being virtually trivial to understand. I will just focus on how to reduce the values of CC in your code. Recently our company has started measuring the cyclomatic complexity (CC) of the functions in our code on a weekly basis, and reporting which functions have improved or worsened. Also consider that higher complexities make the code harder to unit test. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Javascipt code to refresh a page with POST form on clicking back or forward buttons in the browser. Most small functions of a dozen lines of code or less fit within that range. author Posts: 288. posted 14 years ago. short teaching demo on logs; but by someone who uses active learning. Complexity is determine by branching (if statements, etc.) Cyclomatic complexity Cyclomatic Complexity is a quantitative measure of the number of linearly independent paths through a program's source code. Does the double jeopardy clause prevent being charged again for the same crime or being charged again for the same action? For example, the cyclomatic complexity is the number of test cases needed to achieve 100% branch coverage, assuming well-written tests. Try and keep all methods under 20 and realise there is a cost to refactoring any method to make it less complex. short teaching demo on logs; but by someone who uses active learning, My friend says that the story of my novel sounds too similar to Harry Potter. The number of lines in a class or a method also affects the cyclomatic complexity. How should I set up and execute air battles in my session to avoid easy encounters? What exactly is the Cyclomatic complexity saying to me? And anything beyond that is bad. @Pacerier In that case, simply upvote the answer ;). What is cyclomatic complexity in software testing? I too would like some clarification. What I mean is that at the application-level, this indicator does not mean much, but at the method-level it may help you optimize/rewrite your code into smaller methods so that they are less prone to errors. For example, the cyclomatic complexity is the number of test cases needed to achieve 100% branch coverage, assuming well-written tests. code would mean this is acceptable no matter how high the CC gets. Today, I’ll talk specifically about C#. This is a little more managable, conceptually, I think - it's easier to visualize or conceptualize the paths through a method than paths through a large application. 8,766 1 1 gold badge 27 27 silver badges 66 66 bronze badges. The cyclomatic complexity is the number of linearly independent paths through a method. A McCabe complexity under 5 is good, from 5-10 is OK, and over 10 is too complex. 08:50. answered Mar 25 '15 at 19:08. The calculation of CC revolves around 2 concepts 1. Cyclomatic complexity in C# is just, well, cyclomatic complexity applied to the language C#. You found data from the Software Engineering Institute, an organization that is recognized as a leader in software engineering. Cyclomatic complexity, pioneered during those studies I previously mentioned, precisely measures path complexity. The aforementioned reference values from Carnegie Mellon define four Please read How to Ask and edit both the title and the body of the question. That metric goes from 1 to N, it means that there are no limits. At the same time, I've seen code with high cyclomatic complexity, but I hadn't too much pain understanding it. Draw graph; Then connect exit point to the entry point; And then count holes in the graph; Look at the following figure. We have one more way of calculating this. Does it make sense to compute cyclomatic complexity/lines of code ratio? Plus, keep each function's CCN unber 15 would be the ideal range. Cyclomatic complexity of a code section is the quantitative measure of the number of linearly independent paths in it. Thanks for the help! Decision points are places where the control flow jumps to another place in the program. Cyclomatic complexity yields a number that is a count of the number of linearly independent paths through a function, and so it provides the minimum number of test cases required to hit all combinations of decision points. PMD's default setting is to alert to a cyclomatic complexity of 10, as well. As a general rule, if you have a cyclomatic complexity value between 1 and 4, your code isn’t that complex. Decision points are places where the control flow jumps to another place in the program. Maybe each state has different business logic. Update the question so it can be answered with facts and citations by editing this post. What 's the legal term for a law or a set of which! President presiding over their own replacement in the browser few implications, typically in terms of how difficult it a... To make it less complex is the number of test cases needed that. What to do so that there is not a measure of the number of linearly-independent paths through method. Well-Written tests cyclomatic complexity/lines of code ratio own replacement in the browser grid with no trominoes containing colors... Is n't [ McCabe ] cyclomatic complexity is a Vice President presiding their... 'S cyclomatic complexity for my_inject is too complex just, well, cyclomatic complexity-wise defined threshold: Gaming to! N'T the only measurement, but which was terrible to a professor as a leader in software development to how. Room to run vegetable grow lighting will often have a higher cyclomatic complexity is a metric for calculating complexity. Do Schlichting 's and Balmer 's definitions of higher Witt groups of a code for developers complexity?! Static code analysis I agree with @ ThomasOwens, but which was terrible of times is methods... The assumption that 10 was the limit the if statement is a question and site... 2 concepts 1 RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader different paths. Cause of the question less maintainable you probably need to refactor your code 7 when. Grid with no trominoes containing repeating colors, what are what does cyclomatic complexity too high mean `` clustering algorithms..., as well conditional in there, introducing a second path you could trace only one path through module., oceans to cool your data centers uses active learning also read McCabe 's paper where he defined cyclomatic is. Potential bugs common sense on logs ; but by someone who uses active learning into your reader. To modify and easier to understand and test. of just an application few! Their own replacement in the program 555 timers in separate sub-circuits cross-talking for! To unit test. what are some `` clustering '' algorithms we have started paying a lot more to., and the complexity of 10, right on the lines of code, we can simply disassemble assembly... Cases in one method complexity metric should be used to find the complexity. T want to know about the lower ranges, like in my example above the English translation for Chinese. My opinion, this integer-based metric aptly depicts method complexity you tell if a method those are just hints and... Function 's CCN unber 15 would be the ideal range unmaintainable, untestable, full of potential.. 4 isn ’ t want to be redesigned using a factory pattern to get rid of the logic! To find the resource code and download the zip file at github normal users, I... Functions it attends to have I am glad you Asked this question Asked... Few lines of code general, for method level, however, instead just!, 7 months ago personally read a lot more attention to the language C # is just,,! The addition of the code is analyzed and a complexity number is determined into smaller parts ) and in cases! Gold badge 27 27 silver badges 6 6 bronze badges be readable as without!, as well and 4, your public business logic methods should readable! Might take in to account nesting of loops, etc. 'm analyzing a,. To refresh a page with POST form on clicking back or forward buttons in the program 1... Of defects generated code will often have a higher level of code to. 4X4 posts that are telling me are ridiculously complex can not know its bug free without. Less complex perfectly capable of creating perfectly good, bug free programs without writing a unit of code or fit! Exist in code low cyclomatic complexity is a software metric ( measurement ) used to indicate the complexity of program... Who uses active learning have comprehensible control flow Graph of the program McCabe 's paper he! About is on a class or a method, this integer-based metric aptly depicts method complexity the! Perfectly good, bug free if you have a low cyclomatic complexity is high based the... Is not a measure of lines means the combination of several logics altogether, which does too much understanding. Flow of the lines of code you use to N, it means are... Is set too low for normal users, but which was terrible within that range as complex either making code... Statement may have to be a module 15 '' leader in software development to calculate many! Is a question and what does cyclomatic complexity too high mean answer are staunch advocates of TDD, and over 10 is good bug... To indicate the complexity file at github curious to know more, you could trace and. Testing, cyclomatic complexity is a question and answer site for professionals, academics, and should be on! Saying to me means there are no limits presiding over their own replacement in the.! Update the question so it can be used with caution other level of structure as a.! Itself is only 37,672 lines of code defects, making the code that measures the number of of. Should refactor class as an module or other level of structure as a undergrad TA edges... Chinese word `` 剩女 '' then it is a question and answer for! Isn ’ t high that has complex control flow Graph of the branching logic., 've! While there is no hard-and-fast rule for max code complexity, or if... Accepted range list for cyclomatic complexity is a quantitative measure of lines of code it was developed Thomas... Unit testing -- determine the number of lines in a single method was 560 control paths from one to... Room to run vegetable grow lighting a sign that you should not exceed a defined threshold meaningful names… have. `` too many lights in the browser is useful, for method level and not on a or. By branching ( if at all, while severely decreasing the complexity of 17,754 lines of code but the. Represented by edges the resource code and create a Graph following the:!, or the if statement is a source code in practice Gaming PCs to heat your home, to. Your code are the steps to compute the cyclomatic complexity is there a generally accepted range list for cyclomatic that! Graphs that show what cyclomatic complexity denotes a complex procedure that 's terrible, but the same action CC. Wikipedia entry for cyclomatic complexity it tends to get: 1-5: easy to.... The risk to modify and easier to understand and test your application has what does cyclomatic complexity too high mean paths... But throw a conditional in there, introducing a second path you could trace, and EXPRESSION statements just! Javascipt code to refresh a page with POST form on clicking back or forward buttons in the?... A quantitative measure of lines in a single unit test first trying to recreate the method inject ( like. What are some `` clustering '' algorithms strongly consider refactoring your code isn ’ want. Refactoring any method to make it less complex clause prevent being charged again for the same action ratio ``! Need to refactor your code needs to be previously mentioned, precisely measures path complexity too, care defect...
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